Ke koho a me ka hoʻomākaukau ʻana o nā electrode tungsten no GTAW

ʻO ke koho a me ka hoʻomākaukau ʻana o nā electrode tungsten no GTAW he mea nui e hoʻonui i nā hopena a pale i ka hoʻohaumia a me ka hana hou. Nā kiʻi Getty
ʻO Tungsten kahi mea hao nui i hoʻohana ʻia e hana i nā uila uila tungsten arc welding (GTAW) uila uila. Hilinaʻi ke kaʻina GTAW i ka paʻakikī a me ke kūpaʻa wela kiʻekiʻe o ka tungsten e hoʻolilo i ke au kuʻihao i ka arc. ʻO ke kiko hoʻoheheʻe o ka tungsten ka mea kiʻekiʻe loa ma waena o nā metala āpau, ma 3,410 kekelē Kelekia.
Hele mai kēia mau uila uila pau ʻole i nā ʻano like ʻole a me nā lōʻihi, a ua haku ʻia me ka tungsten maoli a i ʻole nā ​​ʻalemala o ka tungsten a me nā mea ʻē aʻe o ka honua a me nā oxide. ʻO ke koho ʻana o ka electrode no GTAW kaukaʻi ʻia i ka ʻano a me ka mānoanoa o ka substrate, a inā hoʻohana ʻia ka alternating current (AC) a i ʻole ke kuhikuhi pololei (DC) no ka hoʻoheheʻe ʻana. ʻO kahi o nā hoʻomākaukau ʻekolu āu i koho ai, spherical, kuhikuhi, a i ʻole truncated, he mea nui ia no ka optimizing hopena a me ka pale ʻana i ka haumia a me ka hana hou ʻana.
Kuhi ʻia kēlā me kēia electrode e hoʻopau i ka huikau e pili ana i kona ʻano. Hōʻike ke kala i ka piko o ka uila.
Loaʻa nā electrode tungsten pure (AWS classification EWP) i ka 99.50% tungsten, nona ka helu ʻai kiʻekiʻe loa o nā electrode āpau, a ʻoi aku ka maʻalahi ma mua o nā electrodes alloy.
Hoʻokumu kēia mau electrodes i kahi kihi spherical maʻemaʻe ke wela a hāʻawi i ke kūpaʻa arc maikaʻi loa no ka hoʻopili ʻana o AC me nā nalu kaulike. Hāʻawi pū ka tungsten maʻemaʻe i ke kūpaʻa arc maikaʻi no ka hoʻopili ʻana o ka nalu o AC, keu hoʻi ma ka aluminika a me ka magnesium. ʻAʻole hoʻohana ʻia ia no ka kuʻihao DC no ka mea ʻaʻole ia e hoʻolako i ka hoʻomaka o ka arc ikaika e pili ana i nā thode a i ʻole nā ​​electrode cerium. ʻAʻole ia e koi ʻia e hoʻohana i ka tungsten maʻemaʻe ma nā mīkini hoʻohuli inverter; no nā hopena maikaʻi loa, e hoʻohana i ka cerium ʻoi a i ʻole nā ​​electrodes lanthanide.
Aia nā electrodes Thorium tungsten (AWS classification EWTh-1 a me EWTh-2) ma kahi o 97.30% tungsten a me 0.8% a i 2.20% thorium. ʻElua ʻano: EWTh-1 a me EWTh-2, nona ka 1% a me 2%. Kūpono ʻia. Hoʻohana mau ʻia lākou i nā uila uila a makemake ʻia no ko lākou ola lōʻihi a me ka maʻalahi o ka hoʻohana. Hoʻomaikaʻi ʻo Thorium i ka maikaʻi o ka hoʻokuʻu ʻana o ka electron o ka electrode, a laila hoʻomaikaʻi i ka piʻo e hoʻomaka ana a me ka ʻae ʻana i ka hiki ke hāpai i ke au kiʻekiʻe. Hana ka uila i lalo loa o ka mahana o ka hoʻoheheʻe, kahi e hoʻoliʻiliʻi nui ai i ka helu o ka ʻai a hoʻopau i ka ʻauana o ka arc, a laila hoʻomaikaʻi i ke kūpaʻa. Hoʻohālikelike ʻia me nā uila uila ʻē aʻe, waiho ka thode electrodes i ka liʻiliʻi o ka tungsten i loko o ka loko hoʻoheheʻe, no laila e hoʻoliʻiliʻi lākou i ka haumia o ka hao.
Hoʻohana nui ʻia kēia mau electrode no ka hoʻopili pono ʻana o ka electrode ʻino (DCEN) o ke kila kila, kila kila, nickel a me titanium, a me kekahi kuʻina AC kūikawā (e like me nā noi alumini lahilahi).
I ka wā o ke kaʻina hana, hoʻopuehu like ʻia ka thorium i loko o ka electrode, kahi e kōkua ai i ka tungsten e mālama i kāna kihi ʻoi loa ma hope o ka wili ʻana-ʻo kēia ke ʻano uila uila kūpono no ka hoʻopaʻa ʻana i ka kila lahilahi. Nānā: He radioactive ʻo Thorium, no laila pono ʻoe e hāhai mau i nā ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo a ka mea hana, nā ʻōkuhi a me ka pepa ʻikepili palekana palekana (MSDS) ke hoʻohana ia.
Loaʻa ka electrode cerium tungsten (AWS classification EWCe-2) ma kahi o 97.30% tungsten a me 1.80% a i 2.20% cerium, a ua kapa ʻia he 2% cerium. Hana maikaʻi kēia mau uila i ka DC welding ma nā hoʻonohonoho haʻahaʻa o kēia manawa, akā hiki ke hoʻohana maʻalahi ʻia i nā kaʻina AC. Me kona hoʻomaka arc maikaʻi loa ma ka amperage haʻahaʻa, makemake nui ʻia ka cerium tungsten i nā noi e like me ka paipu kaʻaahi a me ka hana ʻana i ka paipu, ka hana ʻana i nā metala a me nā hana e pili ana i nā ʻāpana liʻiliʻi a kikoʻī. E like me thorium, hoʻohana maikaʻi ʻia ia no ka hoʻopili ʻana i ke kila kila, nā kila kila, nā ʻeleu nikala a me ka titanium. I kekahi mau hihia, hiki iā ia ke pani i nā uila uila 2%. ʻOkoʻa iki nā waiwai uila o ka cerium tungsten a me ka thorium, akā ʻaʻole hiki i ka hapa nui o nā mea hoʻoheheʻe ke hoʻokaʻawale iā lākou.
ʻAʻole koi ʻia ka hoʻohana ʻana o kahi electrode ameriage cerium electrode kiʻekiʻe, no ka mea, ʻo ka amperage ʻoi aku ka kiʻekiʻe e neʻe wikiwiki ai ka oxide i ka wela piko, e hoʻoneʻe i ka ʻike o ka oxide a hoʻopau i nā pono o ke kaʻina.
Hoʻohana i nā ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo kuhi a / a i ʻole ʻoki ʻia (no ka tungsten maʻemaʻe, cerium, lanthanum a me nā ʻano thorium) no ka hana inverter AC a me DC.
Aia nā electrode tungsten lantantum (AWS classified EWLa-1, EWLa-1.5 a me EWLa-2) ma kahi o 97.30% tungsten a me 0.8% a i 2.20% lanthanum a i ʻole lanthanum, a ua kapa ʻia ʻo EWLa-1, EWLa-1.5 a me EWLa-2 Lanthanum Department o nā kumu. ʻO kēia mau electrodes kahi arc hoʻomaka maikaʻi loa, ka helu burnout haʻahaʻa, ke kūpaʻa arc maikaʻi a me nā ʻano noho aliʻi maikaʻi-he nui nā mea like e like me nā electrode cerium. Loaʻa iā Lanthanide electrodes nā ʻano conductive o 2% thorium tungsten. I kekahi mau hihia, hiki i ka lanthanum-tungsten ke pani i ka thorium-tungsten me ka ʻole o nā loli nui i ke kaʻina hana hao.
Inā makemake ʻoe e hoʻonui i ka hiki ke hoʻopili, ʻo lanthanum tungsten electrode ke koho kūpono. Kūpono lākou no AC a i ʻole DCEN me ke kihi, a i ʻole hiki ke hoʻohana ʻia me ka AC sine nalu mana lako. Hiki iā Lanthanum a me tungsten ke mālama pono i kahi wīwī ʻoi loa, kahi keu no ke kila kila a me ke kila kila ma DC a i ʻole AC e hoʻohana ana i kahi mana nalu kuʻuna.
ʻAʻole like me ka thung tungenen, kūpono kēia mau electrodes no ka hoʻopili AC a, e like me nā electrode cerium, e ʻae e hoʻomaka a mālama ʻia ka arc ma kahi uila haʻahaʻa. Hoʻohālikelike ʻia me ka tungsten maʻemaʻe, no ka nui o ka uila i hāʻawi ʻia, hoʻonui ka hoʻohui o lanthanum oxide i ka hiki ke hali i kēia manawa e 50%.
Loaʻa ka liʻiliʻi zirconium tungsten electrode (AWS classification EWZr-1) ma kahi o 99.10% tungsten a me 0.15% i 0.40% zirconium. Hiki i ka zirconium tungsten electrode ke hana i kahi arc paʻa loa a pale i ka spatter tungsten. He koho maikaʻi loa ia no ka wili AC no ka mea mālama ia i kahi kihi ākea a kūpaʻa kūpale kiʻekiʻe. ʻO kona kūlana halihali i kēia manawa ua like a ʻoi aku paha ma mua o thorium tungsten. ʻAʻole ia e koi ʻia e hoʻohana i ka zirconium no DC kuʻihao ma lalo o nā kūlana.
Loaʻa ka electrode tungsten electrode (AWS classification EWG) i ʻike ʻole ʻia i hoʻohui ʻia o nā mea hoʻohui honua ʻokikene honua a i ʻole ka huikau i hui ʻia o nā oxides ʻokoʻa, akā pono ka mea hana e hōʻike i kēlā me kēia mea hoʻohui a me kona pākēneka ma ka pūʻolo. Kaukaʻi ʻia i ka mea hoʻohui, hiki i nā hopena i makemake ʻia ke hoʻopili i ka arc paʻa i ka wā o ka hana AC a me DC, ʻoi aku ka lōʻihi o ke ola ma mua o ka thorium tungsten, ka hiki ke hoʻohana i nā electrode liʻiliʻi o ke anawaena i ka hana like, a me ka hoʻohana ʻana o nā uila i like ka nui me ke kiʻekiʻe ʻoi aku. a ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi o ka spatter tungsten.
Ma hope o ke koho ʻana i ke ʻano uila, ʻo ke kaʻina aʻe e koho i ka hoʻomākaukau hopena. ʻO nā koho ʻekolu he spherical, kuhikuhi a truncated.
Hoʻohana pinepine ʻia ka piko spherical no ka tungsten pono a me nā electrodes zirconium a koi ʻia no nā kaʻina AC ma ka nalu sine a me nā mīkini GTAW kuʻuna kuʻuna kuʻuna. E hoʻopili pono i ka hopena o ka tungsten, e hoʻopili wale i ke au o AC i koi ʻia no ke anawaena uila i hāʻawi ʻia (e nānā i ke kiʻi 1), a e hana ʻia kahi pōpō i ka hopena o ka uila.
ʻAʻole pono ke anawaena o ka spherical hopena ma mua o 1.5 mau manawa i ke anawaena o ka uila (e laʻa me, 1/8-inch electrode e hana i kahi 3/16-inch diameter end). ʻO kahi poepoe nui ma ka piko o ka uila e hōʻemi i ka paʻa paʻa. E hina paha ia a hoʻohaumia i ka weld.
Hoʻohana ʻia a me / a i ʻole mau ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo i kālai ʻia (no ka tungsten, cerium, lanthanum a me nā ʻano thorium) i hoʻohana ʻia i nā kaʻina hoʻoheheʻe AC a me DC.
E wili pono i ka tungsten, hoʻohana i kahi wili wili i hoʻonohonoho pono ʻia no ka wili ʻana i ka tungsten (e pale i ka hoʻohaunaele) a me kahi wili wili i hana ʻia me ka borax a i ʻole ka diamana (e pale aku ai i ka paʻakikī o ka tungsten). Nānā: Inā ʻoe e wili ana i ka th tungsten, e ʻoluʻolu e mālama a hōʻiliʻili i ka lepo; loaʻa i ka mīkini wili ke kikowaena ea kūpono; a hāhai i nā ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo a ka mea hana, a me MSDS.
E wili pololei i ka tungsten ma ka huila ma kahi kihi 90 kekona (e nānā i ke kiʻi 2) e hōʻoia i ka hoʻonui ʻana o nā kaha wili ma ka lōʻihi o ka uila. Hiki i ka hana ʻana ke hōʻemi i ke alo o nā kualono ma tungsten, a he mea paha ia e heʻe ai a hoʻoheheʻe ai ka piʻo i loko o ka loko Weld, a hopena i ka haumia.
ʻO ka maʻamau, makemake ʻoe e wili i ka wili i ka tungsten ʻaʻole i ʻoi aku ma mua o 2.5 mau manawa ke anawaena o ka uila (ʻo kahi laʻana, no ka uila uila 1/8, ʻo ka papa honua he 1/4 a 5/16 ʻīniha ka lōʻihi). ʻO ka wili ʻana o ka tungsten i loko o kahi cone hiki ke maʻalahi i ka hoʻololi o ka arc e hoʻomaka ana, a hana i kahi arc i ʻoi aku ka paʻa, i loaʻa ai ka hana kuʻihao ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi.
Ke kuʻihao i nā mea lahilahi (0,005 a 0,040 iniha) i ke au haʻahaʻa, ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o ka wili ʻana i ka tungsten i kahi kiko. ʻAe ka piko e hoʻoili i kēia au kuʻihao i ka piʻo e kia ana a kōkua i ka pale ʻana i ka deformation o nā metala lahilahi e like me ka alumini. ʻAʻole ia e koi ʻia e hoʻohana i ka tungsten piko no nā noi i ʻoi aku ke kiʻekiʻe no ka mea e puhi ka mea kiʻekiʻe i ka piko o ka tungsten a hana i ka haumia o ka loko Weld.
No nā noi i ʻoi aku ke kiʻekiʻe, ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o ka wili ʻana i ka piko i kua ʻia. No ka loaʻa ʻana o kēia kinona, ʻo ka tungsten ka honua mua i ka piula i hōʻike ʻia ma luna, a laila ka honua i 0.010 a i 0,030 iniha. Pālahalaha ma ka hopena o ka tungsten. Kōkua kēia ʻāina pālahalaha i ka pale ʻana i ka tungsten mai ka lawe ʻana ma o ka arc. Pale pū ia i ka hoʻokumu ʻana o nā kinipōpō.
ʻO WELDER, ka mea i kapa ʻia ma mua he Welding Pono i kēia lā, hōʻike i ka poʻe maoli e hana i nā huahana a mākou e hoʻohana ai a hana i kēlā me kēia lā. Ua lawelawe kēia makasina i ke kaiāulu kuʻihao ma ʻAmelika Hema no 20 mau makahiki a ʻoi paha.


Ka manawa o ka manawa: Aug-23-2021